Training at high altitudes has been popular among runners since the 1968 Olympics in Mexico City. From the results of those Games it was obvious that to compete well at high altitude it is necessary to train at high altitude. It is not clear, however, whether training at altitude provides an advantage for competitions at sea level. The few well-controlled studies have found mixed results when athletes train at altitude to prepare for sea level races. Yet, places such as Boulder, Colorado, and Albuquerque, New Mexico are practically shoulder-to-shoulder with world-class athletes and wannabes seeking the high altitude edge. Let’s take a look at the physiological effects of altitude training and the latest ideas on how to improve your performance with high altitude.